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2022 Malaysian general elections

MANIFESTO COMPARISON

What are the coalitions promising?

This guide compiles pledges by coalitions with a national reach to make it easier for comparisons.

Only measurable goals and initiatives that are not already ongoing (e.g. increasing the number of teachers) are listed.

Some pledges appear in more than one category. The pledges are arranged in order of left to right based on when they were released - PH (Nov 2), PN (Nov 6) and BN (Nov 7).

To submit feedback on this page, email us.

Cash handouts

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PH

  • Subsidy cards or e-wallets for farmers.

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PN

  • Increase cost-of-living allowance for civil servants by RM100.

  • RM1,000 "early aid" for students who are accepted into tertiary institutions.

  • RM1,000 incentive for gig economy workers who enrol in an accredited course.

  • RM1,200 Bantuan Tanaman Padi cash handout for padi farmers.

  • RM800 Bantuan Musim Tengkujuh annual payment for farmers.

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BN

  • Introduce a new "assistive basic income" scheme. This involves an automatic "top-up" mechanism to ensure each household has a minimum income of RM2,208.

  • One-off RM500 cash assistance to Bantuan Keluarga Malaysia recipient mothers who give birth.

Anti-corruption

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PH

  • All Harapan MPs, senior civil servants, GLC chairpersons, their spouses and close family members must declare their assets.

  • Amending the Whistleblower Protection Act to allow whistleblowers to directly expose misappropriations to the media.

  • Direct negotiations will only be allowed for matters pertaining to national security but subject to the special committee which will be led by members from the opposition.

  • Enact a Government Procurement Act to regulate defence procurement processes.

  • Finance Ministry to list supply costs twice a year.

  • For government procurement, the RFP system and open tenders will be carried out.

  • MACC chief commissioner nominees must be vetted by a bi-partisan Parliamentary Select Committee.

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PN

  • Create an Anti-Corruption Court.

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BN

  • Upgrade Institut Integrity Malaysia into a commission.

Institutional reforms

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PH

  • 10-year term limit for prime minister, chief minister and menteri besar.

  • Establishing an ombudsman system to address issues of misconduct by politicians and civil servants including the enforcement authorities.

  • Introducing a Political Funding Act to regulate political funding.

  • Nominees for the public prosecutor, MACC top positions, Election Commission positions and inspector-general of police must be vetted by a bi-partisan Parliamentary Select Committee.

  • Official Secrets Act 1972 classification decided by a Parliamentary Select Committee and not at the discretion of any minister, except for matters that can potentially threaten the security of the nation.

  • Public prosecutor, MACC top officials, Election Commission members and inspector-general of police to be given security of tenure to ensure it is not arbitrarily cut short by the sitting prime minister.

  • Separation of power between public prosecutor and attorney-general.

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PN

  • Create a quota for a minimum of two youth members of the Dewan Negara.

  • Introduce a Political Financing Act which will also criminalise foreign political donations.

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BN

  • Establish a "Youth committee for policy review" in Parliament.

  • MACC chief, Bank Negara governor and Election Commission chairperson to be vetted by the Parliamentary Select Committee.

  • Separation of power between public prosecutor and attorney-general.

  • Upgrade Institut Integrity Malaysia into a commission.

Election reform

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PH

  • Fixed Parliament Term Act to ensure that the dissolution of Parliament or state assembly will only be called at the end of the term to minimise political instability.

  • Postal voting rights for Sabah and Sarawak diaspora living in Peninsular Malaysia and vice versa.

  • Solving the issue of malapportionment by implementing a deviation limit of 30pct from the average population size of voting constituencies.

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PN

None

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BN

None

Parliamentary reform

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PH

  • Establishing a Parliamentary Budget Office (PBO).

  • Introducing Constituency Development Fund (CDF) that can be used by all MPs.

  • Restoring Parliament Services Act to allow Parliament to have its own administration, staffing and financing, rather than be controlled by the government.

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PN

  • Create a quota for a minimum of two youth members of the Dewan Negara.

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BN

  • Establish a "Youth committee for policy review" in Parliament.

  • Quota for "Youth senator" in the Dewan Negara.

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Press freedom

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PH

  • Establishing a Media Council to standardise media regulations and guarantee media freedom.

  • Freedom of Information Act.

  • Review or repeal Sedition Act 1948, Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 and Printing Press and Publications Act 1984.

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PN

None

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BN

None

Education

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PH

  • Abolish Universities and University Colleges Act 1971.

  • Biasiswa B40 scholarship scheme for low-income families.

  • Fair allocation to all government-funded or aided schools.

  • Increase funding for free breakfast programme.

  • New Biasiswa Perintis scholarship scheme for those entering new economic fields such as the caregiving industry, modern farming and green industry.

  • Special allocations to address the "lost generation" who did not receive proper education due to poverty or living in remote areas during the Covid-19 pandemic.

  • Special funding for education for PWD.

  • Targeted PTPTN loan forgiveness for B40 households.

  • Unified Examination Certificate (UEC) to be accepted for public university enrolment on condition that the applicants possess at least a credit in Bahasa Melayu.

  • Establish an independent central authority to manage TVET institutions to standardise accreditation.

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PN

  • Access to digital devices for all school children.

  • Digital devices for qualified M40 and B40 tertiary students.

  • High-speed internet access for all classrooms.

  • Increase administration assistants in schools.

  • Increase enrollment of students in STEM subjects.

  • Increasing Kafa teacher monthly allowance by 50pct to RM1,500.

  • Laptop computers for all teachers.

  • National Education Savings Scheme (SSPN) tax exemption increased from RM8,000 to RM10,000, up to the year 2027.

  • RM1,000 "early aid" for students who are accepted into tertiary institutions.

  • Special RM2.5 billion per annum allocation for school maintenance from 2023 until 2025.

  • Spend RM50 million a year on infrastructure and development of special needs education.

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BN

  • Creating textbook-free schools by providing free laptops to all B40 students.

  • Establish a Women's Public University.

  • Expand 5G internet coverage and public Wi-Fi networks to all schools within 18 months.

  • Expanding PTPTN "full loan" scheme to M40 group. Currently, applicants from families with household income of more than RM8,000 only qualify for 50pct loan.

  • Grant full autonomy to public Higher Education Institutions (IPTA).

  • Implement a dedicated educational programme for students who were left behind because of the Covid-19.

  • Introduce basic communication language in schools - Mandarin, Tamil, Iban, Kadazan, Dusun and others.

  • Introduce income contingent PTPTN repayment which starts a year after the graduate has found work.

  • Reduce the cost of higher education by up to half through the introduction of a flexible higher education system (50pct on campus and 50pct online/distance learning).

  • Turn PTPTN into a foundation, which will also be funded through community endowments and "infak masyarakat".

  • Free higher education for all individuals from B40 families.

  • Increase the number of specialised teachers by 10pct.

Health

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PH

  • Increasing the Public Healthcare Expenditure to 5pct of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in five years.

  • Decriminalise suicide attempts by amending Section 309 of the Penal Code.

  • Expanding mySalam and PeKaB40 schemes to M40 group.

  • Setting up a National Health Services Commission to resolve problems with contract doctors and reinforce the management of human resources, staffing, training, and career growth of healthcare staff.

  • Shift system to ensure specialised services are available to all segments of society and to optimise usage of public healthcare and medical facilities.

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PN

  • Establishing a Health Services Commission to manage human resources in the public health sector.

  • Establishing a Kad Prihatin Nasional scheme which allows cardholders to receive free services at private and government hospitals for free. This only applies to selected services.

  • Increase the number of specialist doctors and upgrade district public hospitals.

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BN

  • Doubling annual health budget from RM36 billion to RM77 billion by 2027 or 5pct of GDP.

  • Establish a Women's Public Specialist Hospital (Hawa).

Social security

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PH

  • Expanding mySalam and PeKa B40 schemes to M40 group.

  • Social security scheme for gig workers covering life insurance and funeral compensation of up to RM10,000.

  • Special allowance for those who lost their jobs as contract workers and are actively seeking new employment.

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PN

  • Compelling P-hailing and E-hailing companies to provide insurance coverage for their staff.

  • Establishing a Kad Prihatin Nasional scheme which allows cardholders to receive free services at private and government hospitals for free. This only applies to selected services.

  • Establishing MyPrihatin - a one-stop centre and database for all types of government aid.

  • Free health insurance scheme for all Malaysian Volunteer Corps (Rela) members.

  • Free school bus service and childcare facilities for the poor.

  • Reduce Skim Keselamatan Sosial Suri Rumah minimum contribution to RM100, down from RM120.

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BN

  • Achieve zero absolute and hardcore poverty by 2025.

  • Introduce a new "assistive basic income" scheme. This involves an automatic "top-up" mechanism to ensure each household has a minimum income of RM2,208.

  • Free higher education for all individuals from B40 families.

  • Raise the Employment Insurance System (EIS) salary ceiling limit to RM8,000 from RM5,000 currently to help workers cope with retrenchment and job loss.

Childcare

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PH

  • Add 1,500 child protection officers under the Social Welfare Department to reach a ratio of one officer to 30 children.

  • Childcare subsidies for working women in B40 and M40 categories.

  • Creating a Children's Department to address abuse, sexual harassment and neglect of children.

  • Resume implementation of the National Strategic Plan in Handling Causes of Child Marriage 2025, which was supposed to be implemented in 2020.

  • Setting up Child Rights Committee at the Civil and Syariah Courts to address child marriages, custodial rights and visitation rights. The committee will protect the rights of children in such cases.

  • Universal child benefit, deposited monthly up to the age of six years old, to reduce child malnutrition.

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PN

  • Free school bus service and childcare facilities for the poor.

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BN

  • Free childcare and education for children under the age of six.

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Elderly care

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PH

  • Allowances for caregivers who are forced to quit employment in order to care for family members struck by misfortune.

  • Elderly friendly schemes - Jom Shopping vouchers worth RM100, funeral coverage worth RM1,000 and Jom Travel which will prepare free buses to help senior citizens visit local tourist destinations.

  • Enacting a Senior Citizens Act and emphasising the importance of Active Aging Policy.

  • Establishing an agency or department for senior citizens which will focus more on safeguarding the welfare of senior citizens and solving issues faced by them.

  • Free public transportation rides for senior citizens, improving on the current policy of offering 50pct discount.

  • Including "one-stop caregiving facilities" as part of development planning requirements.

  • Restructuring Perkeso to include the elderly protection scheme to ensure that senior citizens will have a safety net even after retirement.

  • Tax exemption incentives and financial assistance to employers that train and employ senior citizens.

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PN

  • Establishing a Senior Citizens Department.

  • Introduce a scheme where doctors would visit the homes of the elderly.

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BN

  • Elderly Care Act to build a protection and care ecosystem for the elderly.

Citizenship

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PH

  • Amend Article 14(1)(b) to allow Malaysian mothers who give birth outside of Malaysia to confer citizenship to their children, in parity with fathers who already possess the right to do so.

  • Amend Article 15(2) of the Federal Constitution to guarantee citizenship for any child born in Malaysia to either a Malaysian mother or father, regardless of race and religion.

  • Automatic citizenship for elderly (60 years) Malaysian citizens that have at least one child who holds Malaysian citizenship.

  • Resolving statelessness among minority groups through a special committee overseen by the Prime Minister's Office but reports to Parliament.

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PN

  • Finalise study on amending Article 14(1)(b) of the Federal Constitution regarding citizenship rights of a child born to a Malaysian mother and a foreign father.

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BN

  • Amend the Federal Constitution and the related laws to provide citizenship rights for children born to Malaysian women abroad.

  • Establishing a cabinet committee for human dignity (Insani) that will resolve problems of undocumented children and uphold their right to education.

Women

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PH

  • Free sanitary pads and tampons at all primary and secondary schools and for women in the B40 category in strategic locations.

  • Guaranteed "gender inclusivity elements" in every bill presented in Parliament.

  • Resume implementation of the National Strategic Plan in Handling Causes of Child Marriage 2025, which was supposed to be implemented in 2020.

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PN

  • Aggressive intervention to realise 30pct female participation in key positions in the public and private sectors by 2025.

  • Expand the Kad Kasih Ibu programme at the national level. Current exists in Perak and Perlis. Cardholders will be able to purchase basic goods from selected shops at a discount.

  • Reduce Skim Keselamatan Sosial Suri Rumah minimum contribution to RM100, down from RM120.

  • RM1,000 tax relief for working women.

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BN

  • Develop a national subsidy scheme for mammogram tests and cervical cancer screening programmes.

  • Establish a national Women’s Economic Development Corporation.

  • Establish a Women's Economic Development Bank.

  • Establish a Women's Leadership Academy at a public university.

  • Establish a Women's Public Specialist Hospital (Hawa)

  • Establish a Women's Public University.

  • One-off RM500 cash assistance to Bantuan Keluarga Malaysia recipient mothers who give birth.

  • Provide full income tax exemptions (0pct) for five years for all women who return to the workforce after a career break.

  • Tax deductions to employers who introduce flexible working hours for working mothers.

Youths

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PH

  • Fixed-price flights (RM199) from Peninsular Malaysia to Sabah or Sarawak - and vice versa -  for students. Limited to two tickets per year for each student.

  • Introduce Kad Belia - an upgraded version of Kad Siswa - for youths aged between 13 to 25 years old. This is a promotions and discounts card.

  • RM500 subsidy for training conducted by HRD Corp.

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PN

  • Create a quota for a minimum of two youth members of the Dewan Negara.

  • Establishing a special fund for newly-weds to start a family.

  • Increase allowance for industrial trainees in the public sector to RM1,200.

  • National Higher Education Fund (PTPTN) repayment discounts of 25pct for graduates with a second class or upper degree.

  • RM1,000 incentive for gig economy workers who enrol in an accredited training courses.

  • Zero-interest home financing scheme for young families.

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BN

  • Establish a "Youth committee for policy review" in Parliament.

  • Establishing a Youth Entrepreneurship Fund worth RM300 million.

  • Quota for "Youth senator" in the Dewan Negara.

Persons with disabilities

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PH

  • Appoint a PWD to the Human Rights Commission (Suhakam).

  • New development projects to fulfil universal design standards.

  • Setting up an agency dedicated to coordinating assistance and allocations from various ministries for PWDs.

  • Special funding for education for PWD.

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PN

  • Introduce a special RM20 million fund to help PWD entrepreneurs.

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BN

  • Creating RM10 million in travel vouchers for PWD to use e-hailing services.

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Minority rights

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PH

  • Addressing discriminatory barriers in education, workplace and residential tenancy.

  • Establish a Royal Commission of Inquiry to investigate abuse of power and misappropriation of funds involving Maika Holdings, MIED, SEED, SEDIC, NAAM, Penjana Kerja and Mitra.

  • Introducing a special "Makkal Malarchi" fund for social, economic and welfare development programmes.

  • Resolving statelessness among minority groups through a special committee overseen by the Prime Minister's Office but reports to Parliament.

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PN

  • Establishing a Special Cabinet Committee on Socioeconomic Development and Rights of Orang Asli.

  • Special quota for the Indian community under the dermasiswa B40 TVET programme.

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BN

None

Orang Asal rights

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PH

  • Ensuring that the citizens obtain land grants through the Sabah State Service Special Programme (Pantas), with an allocation of RM100 million each year until the issue is resolved.

  • Establish a Land Tribunal to handle Customary Land Rights disputes.

  • Establishing a Native Justice Department to support the Sabah Native Court. Recognise and provide certification to Native Court staff through the Native Court Training Institute (ILMAN).

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PN

None

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BN

None

East Malaysia

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PH

  • Start annual payments to Sabah at a rate of 40pct of the revenue derived from the state, in accordance with Article 112C and Subsection 2(1) Part IV of the Tenth Schedule in the Federal Constitution.

  • Establishing the National Administrative Coordination Council (NACC) involving agencies that operate autonomously for the regions of Sabah, Sarawak and the Peninsula.

  • Two deputy prime ministers will be appointed - one either from Sabah or Sarawak. Both will facilitate the administration of the NACC.

  • Ensuring 35pct of Parliament representatives are from Sabah and Sarawak.

  • Handing over the administration of Sabah Electricity Sdn Bhd from Tenaga Nasional Bhd to a different entity.

  • Restoring the power of Tuan Yang Terutama (TYT) to appoint judicial commissioners of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak.

  • Two new public higher education institutes will be built in Sabah and Sarawak.

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PN

  • Establishing new public universities in Sabah and Sarawak.

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BN

  • Revive the east-west public ferry service (Feri Malaysia) that connects Peninsular Malaysia with Sabah and Sarawak.

Environment

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PH

  • Drafting the Transboundary Haze Act and reinforcing a cooperation framework among neighbouring countries with regard to enforcing laws relating to pollution prevention.

  • Forest financing of up to RM1 billion to discourage state governments from degazetting forest reserves.

  • Increasing Marine Protection Areas to 30pct by 2030.

  • Introducing Climate Change Act to set carbon emission and forest coverage targets by 2040.

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PN

  • Establish a Natural Disaster and Climate Change Action Group to address floods and natural disasters effectively.

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BN

  • Establish a special fund to help victims of natural disasters due to environmental pollution.

  • Increase Malaysia's forest cover to 60pct.

Housing

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PH

  • Establishing an RM3 billion fund to guarantee financing for first-time buyers of affordable housing.

  • Expanding the role of the housing tribunal to cover tenants.

  • Full stamp duty exemption for first-time homeowners for properties below RM500,000.

  • Introduce a new scheme that allows Program Perumahan Rakyat (PPR) tenants to transition into owners.

  • Take over the maintenance of low-cost apartments.

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PN

  • Offering a Micro Youth Affordable Rental Housing scheme in major cities.

  • Special allocation of RM2.5 billion for the maintenance of federal government quarters from 2023 until 2025.

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BN

  • Expand Syarikat Jaminan Kredit Perumahan (SJKP) coverage to help 50,000 workers without a fixed income finance their home.

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Taxes

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PH

  • Tax exemption incentives and financial assistance to employers that train and employ senior citizens.

  • Tax incentives for triple deductions on expenditure related to business movement for encouraging export.

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PN

  • National Education Savings Scheme (SSPN) tax exemption increased from RM8,000 to RM10,000, up to the year 2027.

  • New tax exemption category for sports equipment, gym membership and other healthy lifestyle expenses. Up to RM3,000.

  • RM1,000 tax relief for working women.

  • Special tax exemptions for full-time gig-economy workers.

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BN

  • Tax deduction of up to RM5,000 for employers who train employees.

  • Tax incentive for companies which "uphold gender and ethnic diversity in management".

  • Those in the RM50,000 to RM100,000 income bracket will enjoy a 2pct income tax reduction.

  • Provide full income tax exemptions (0pct) for five years for all women who return to the workforce after a career break.

  • Tax deductions to employers who introduce flexible working hours for working mothers.

Transport

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PH

  • Free public transportation rides for senior citizens, improving on the current policy of offering 50pct discount.

  • Further reduction in toll charges for North-South Expressway (Plus).

  • Introduce a fare limit of RM5 per day to encourage public transport use.

  • Introduce regulations to legalise micro-mobility vehicles such as e-scooters and e-bikes to ensure first and last-mile connections.

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PN

  • Compelling P-hailing and E-hailing companies to provide insurance coverage for their staff.

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BN

  • Revive the east-west public ferry service (Feri Malaysia) that connects Peninsular Malaysia with Sabah and Sarawak.

Human resource

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PH

None

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PN

  • Starting an industrial training scheme within government-linked companies with a minimum allowance of RM1,000.

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BN

  • Credit vouchers of up to RM10,000 to SME employers for training activities.

  • Enact the Dependent Contractor Act to protect gig workers, e-hailing drivers, food delivery drivers and other non-formal workers.

  • Establish a National Placement Centres and MyFutureJobs Satellite Centres in UTCs to help job seekers.

  • Establish an Employment Retention Fund (ERF), jointly contributed by the government, employees and employers to safeguard against immediate layoffs during economic crises and national emergencies.

  • Introduce a National Apprenticeship Programme for skilled trainees.

  • Mandating a minimum allowance for those who undergo practical training or paid internship.

  • Paid holiday on employee’s birthday.

  • Tax deduction of up to RM5,000 for employers who train employees.

Business

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PH

  • Gazetting Free Trade Zones at Kota Kinabalu Industrial Park (KKIP), Palm Oil Industrial Cluster Lahad Datu and Sandakan as well as Sipitang Oil & Gas Industrial Park (SOGIP).

  • Set up a one-stop digitalisation centre to help SMEs apply for digitalisation incentives.

  • Tax incentives for triple deductions on expenditure related to business movement for encouraging export.

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PN

  • Establish a Skim Prihatin PMKS to encourage digitalisation and automation.

  • Establishing a one-stop centre for bumiputera entrepreneurs involved in the high technology and future economy.

  • Introduce a special RM20 million fund to help PWD entrepreneurs.

  • Setting up an agropreneur bumiputera fund with RM1 billion to finance bumiputera entrepreneurs.

  • Special investment incentive fund (RM5 billion) to make Malaysia a Southeast Asia Industrial Hub.

  • Targeted moratorium or loan restructuring for businesses.

  • Free internet for digital startups to encourage technological innovation.

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BN

  • Establishing a youth entrepreneurship fund worth RM300 million.

Food security

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PH

  • Increase Padi Price Subsidy Scheme to RM500 per ton, up from RM360 per ton presently, to increase rice production.

  • Subsidy cards or e-wallets for farmers.

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PN

  • A RM1 billion food fund will be established to help stabilise food prices.

  • Create an entity to stockpile staple food to ensure basic needs are met.

  • Create six "mega hubs" for food production to ensure food security.

  • Introduce a Felda entrepreneur scheme to encourage young entrepreneur involvement in high-value agriculture using the latest technology and automation.

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BN

  • Enhance the Bantuan Musim Tengkujuh scheme for farmers and fishermen.

  • Establish a training and financial assistance scheme to help fishermen transition to deep-sea fishing.

  • Establish an agricultural protection scheme to protect agricultural operators from any out-of-control risks including bad weather and disease

  • Mandate that 10pct of GLC farms should be designated for food production.

  • Remove approved permits (AP) for agro-food imports.

  • Train 5,000 farmers under the age of 40 in modern farming within five years.

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Creative industries

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PH

  • Establishing an independent, professional and transparent film board to regulate films and improve existing structures.

  • Set up a creative culture fund for schools.

  • Set up a special task force to study the direction of the creative industry involving Finas, Aswara, Seniman and other stakeholders.

  • Streamlining licensing system for local artists.

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PN

None

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BN

None

Digital economy

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PH

None

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PN

  • Create one million high-income jobs in the digital economy sector within five years.

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BN

  • 100pct nationwide internet coverage, including all rural areas, within 30 months.

Civil servant

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PH

None

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PN

  • Increase cost-of-living allowance for civil servants by RM100.

  • Increasing the number of Village Security and Development Committee members to 20, up from 15 currently.

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BN

None

Crime

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PH

None

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PN

None

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BN

  • Harsher penalties for driving under the influence.

  • Introduce a second chance programme for felons known as Kemahiran Bimbingan dan Anjakan Ikhtisas (Kembali).

Disaster response

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PH

  • Assistance based on damages of up to RM50,000 for every household affected by natural disasters.

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PN

  • Establish a Natural Disaster and Climate Change Action Group to address floods and natural disasters effectively.

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BN

  • Establish a special fund to help victims of natural disasters due to environmental pollution.

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Oil royalty

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PH

None

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PN

  • Pay cash direct to state governments in accordance to the Petroleum Development Act 1974.

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BN

None

Sports

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PH

  • Digitalise visa request process for international athletes and esports athletes to develop sports tourism industry.

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PN

None

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BN

  • Spend RM20 million per annum on developing drag racing circuits.

Tourism

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PH

  • Jom Travel free buses to help senior citizens visit local tourist destinations.

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PN

  • RM1 billion allocation to create new high-value tourism products.

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BN

None

Finance

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PH

None

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PN

  • Increasing Islamic banking products to 50pct of the market within five years.

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BN

  • Establish a Women's Economic Development Bank.

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Credits

Published by Kini News Lab on Oct 20, 2022.

Project coordinator
Andrew Ong & Lee Long Hui
Researcher & Writer
Andrew Ong & Lee Long Hui
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Yan Jing Tian, Ooi Choon Nam & Lee Long Hui
Illustrator
Yan Jing Tian & Syariman Badrulzaman
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introKini News Lab
Kini News Lab is a dedicated team specialising in visual storytelling and data journalism.

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